Cambios gastrointestinales en el envejecimiento: impacto sobre la alimentación y el estado nutricional.

Autores/as

  • David López Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN)
  • Cristina Posada Álvarez Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN)
  • Patricia Savino Lloreda Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.56050/01205498.2185

Palabras clave:

envejecimiento, tracto gastrointestinal, estado nutricional, enfermedad crónica, dietoterapia

Resumen

Durante el envejecimiento se presentan una serie de cambios biológicos y psicológicos que tienen un impacto social y económico en la población a medida que avanza su edad. Uno de los sistemas con cambios fisiológicos que guarda una estrecha relación con el estado nutricional es el tracto gastrointestinal. Cada una de sus secciones presenta modificaciones que alteran, en una u otra medida, la motilidad, la digestión o la absorción de la energía y nutrientes, con efectos deletéreos como la pérdida de la masa musculoesquelética, la disminución en la funcionalidad y la alteración en la calidad de vida, que finalmente contribuye al aumento de la incidencia de desnutrición proteico calórica y sarcopenia. La vejez es una etapa en la que la presencia de enfermedades crónicas incrementa los problemas nutricionales debido al impacto propio de las patologías, sus efectos gastrointestinales, el uso de medicamentos y la inadecuada indicación de dietas restrictivas, que sin la apropiada orientación de un profesional en nutrición y dietética, pueden favorecer y exacerbar la desnutrición. Esta revisión describe los cambios en la función gastrointestinal que ocurren durante el envejecimiento y los efectos sobre el estado nutricional, y expone las consecuencias de las modificaciones en términos del perfil, contenido de nutrientes y consistencia de la alimentación del adulto mayor.

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Biografía del autor/a

David López, Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN)

Nutricionista Dietista, Especialista en epidemiología clínica. Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN).

Cristina Posada Álvarez, Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN)

Nutricionista Dietista, Especialista en bioquímica clínica. Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN).

Patricia Savino Lloreda, Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN)

Nutricionista Dietista, MBA en salud. Centro Latinoamericano de Nutrición (CELAN).

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Publicado

2022-11-17

Cómo citar

[1]
López, D., Posada Álvarez, C. y Savino Lloreda, P. 2022. Cambios gastrointestinales en el envejecimiento: impacto sobre la alimentación y el estado nutricional . Medicina. 44, 3 (nov. 2022), 396–414. DOI:https://doi.org/10.56050/01205498.2185.

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