Cáncer colorrectal: factores de riesgo, diagnóstico y cribado

Autores/as

  • María José Moreta Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
  • Joan Llach Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
  • Leticia Moreira Hospital Clínic de Barcelona

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.56050/01205498.2183

Palabras clave:

Cáncer colorrectal, cribado, diagnóstico, prevención

Resumen

El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) representa una de las neoplasias más comunes y una de las principales muertes por cáncer. La alta incidencia y mortalidad del CCR refuerzan la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores y grupos de riesgo, estrategias para el diagnóstico precoz, prevención y cribado, con el objetivo final de mejorar el pronóstico de los pacientes que han desarrollado o tienen mayor riesgo de esta neoplasia. Este artículo presenta una visión actualizada de todos estos puntos relevantes de manejo en la práctica clínica habitual.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

María José Moreta, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona

Departamento de Gastroenterología, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Joan Llach, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona

Departamento de Gastroenterología, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. ORCID_IDs: Joan Llach: 0000-0001-6535-8925

Leticia Moreira, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona

Departamento de Gastroenterología, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. ORCID_IDs: Leticia Moreira: 0000-0002-4518-8591.

Referencias bibliográficas

Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71(3):209-49.

Bingham SA. Diet and large bowel cancer. J R Soc Med [Internet]. 1990 Jul;83(7):420-2. Available from:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2203904

Potter JD. Reconciling the epidemiology, physiology, and molecular biology of colon cancer. JAMA. 1992;268(12):1573-7.

Baron JA, Sandler RS, Haile RW, Mandel JS, Mott LA, Greenberg ER. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of colorectal adenomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998 Jan 7;90(1):57-62.

Knekt P, Hakama M, Järvinen R, Pukkala E, Heliövaara M. Smoking and risk of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 1998 Jul;78(1):136-9.

Neugut AI, Jacobson JS, De Vivo I. Epidemiology of colorectal adenomatous polyps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1993;2(2):159-76.

Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Ritz J, van den Brandt PA, Colditz GA, Folsom AR, et al. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 8 cohort studies. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(8):603-13.

Castells A, Castellví-Bel S, Balaguer F. Concepts in familial colorectal cancer: where do we stand and what is the future? Gastroenterology. 2009;137(2):404-9.

Møller P, Seppälä TT, Bernstein I, Holinski-Feder E, Sala P, Gareth Evans D, et al. Cancer risk and survival in path_MMR carriers by gene and gender up to 75 years of age: a report from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database. Gut. 2018;67(7):1306-16.

Jenkins MA, Baglietto L, Dowty JG, Van Vliet CM, Smith L, Mead LJ, et al. Cancer risks for mismatch repair gene mutation carriers: a population-based early onset case-family study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(4):489-98.

Järvinen HJ, Aarnio M, Mustonen H, Aktan-Collan K, Aaltonen LA, Peltomäki P, et al. Controlled 15-year trial on screening for colorectal cancer in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2000;118(5):829-34.

Edelstein DL, Axilbund J, Baxter M, Hylind LM, Romans K, Griffin CA, et al. Rapid development of colorectal neoplasia in patients with Lynch syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(4):340-3.

Sánchez A, Roos VH, Navarro M, Pineda M, Caballol B, Moreno L, et al. Quality of Colonoscopy Is Associated With Adenoma Detection and Postcolonoscopy Colorectal Cancer Prevention in Lynch Syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022;20(3):611-621.e9.

Moreira L, Balaguer F, Lindor N, de la Chapelle A, Hampel H, Aaltonen LA, et al. Identification of Lynch Syndrome Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer. JAMA. 2012;308(15):1555.

Moreira L, Castells A. Surveillance of patients with hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016;30(6):923-35.

Stjepanovic N, Moreira L, Carneiro F, Balaguer F, Cervantes A, Balmaña J, et al. Hereditary gastrointestinal cancers: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2019;30(10):1558-71.

Balaguer F. Hereditary and familial colorectal cancer. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;37(Suppl 3):77-84.

van Leerdam ME, Roos VH, van Hooft JE, Dekker E, Jover R, Kaminski MF, et al. Endoscopic management of polyposis syndromes: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline. Endoscopy. 2019;51(9):877-95.

Carballal S, Rodríguez-Alcalde D, Moreira L, Hernández L, Rodríguez L, Rodríguez-Moranta F, et al. Colorectal cancer risk factors in patients with serrated polyposis syndrome: a large multicentre study. Gut. 2016;65(11):1829- 37.

Quintana I, Mejías-Luque R, Terradas M, Navarro M, Piñol V, Mur P, et al. Evidence suggests that germline RNF43 mutations are a rare cause of serrated polyposis. Gut. 2018;67(12):2230-2.

Moreira L, Pellisé M, Carballal S, Bessa X, Ocaña T, Serradesanferm A, et al. High prevalence of serrated polyposis syndrome in FIT-based colorectal cancer screening programmes. Gut. 2013;62(3):476-7.

Giardiello FM, Trimbath JD. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and management recommendations. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(4):408-15. 23. Brosens LAA, van Hattem A, Hylind LM, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Romans KE, Axilbund J, et al. Risk of colorectal cancer in juvenile polyposis. Gut. 2007;56(7):965-7.

Samadder NJ, Smith KR, Hanson H, Pimentel R, Wong J, Boucher K, et al. Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Family Members of All Ages, Regardless of Age of Index Case at Diagnosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13(13):2305-2311.e2.

Samadder NJ, Curtin K, Tuohy TMF, Pappas L, Boucher K, Provenzale D, et al. Characteristics of missed or interval colorectal cancer and patient survival: a populationbased study. Gastroenterology. 2014;146(4):950-60.

Schoen RE, Razzak A, Yu KJ, Berndt SI, Firl K, Riley TL, et al. Incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2015;149(6):1438-1445.e1.

Quintero E, Carrillo M, Leoz M-L, Cubiella J, Gargallo C, Lanas A, et al. Risk of Advanced Neoplasia in First-Degree Relatives with Colorectal Cancer: A Large Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS Med. 2016 May;13(5):e1002008.

Butterworth AS, Higgins JPT, Pharoah P. Relative and absolute risk of colorectal cancer for individuals with a family history: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(2):216-27.

Baglietto L, Jenkins MA, Severi G, Giles GG, Bishop DT, Boyle P, et al. Measures of familial aggregation depend on definition of family history: meta- analysis for colorectal cancer. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006;59(2):114-24.

Johns LE, Houlston RS. A systematic review and metaanalysis of familial colorectal cancer risk. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(10):2992-3003.

Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, Willett WC. A prospective study of family history and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(25):1669-74.

Moreno CC, Mittal PK, Sullivan PS, Rutherford R, Staley CA, Cardona K, et al. Colorectal Cancer Initial Diagnosis: Screening Colonoscopy, Diagnostic Colonoscopy, or Emergent Surgery, and Tumor Stage and Size at Initial Presentation. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2016;15(1):67-73.

Ford AC, Veldhuyzen Van Zanten SJO, Rodgers CC, Talley NJ, Vakil NB, Moayyedi P. Diagnostic utility of alarm features for colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut. 2008;57(11):1545-52.

Shapley M, Mansell G, Jordan JL, Jordan KP. Positive predictive values of ≥5% in primary care for cancer: Systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2010;60(578):366-77.

McDermott FT, Hughes ESR, Pihl E, Milne BJ, Price AB. Prognosis in relation to symptom duration in colon cancer. Br J Surg. 1981;68(12):846-9.

Amri R, Bordeianou LG, Sylla P, Berger DL. Impact of screening colonoscopy on outcomes in colon cancer surgery. JAMA Surg. 2013;148(8):747-54.

Setti Carraro PG, Segala M, Cesana BM, Tiberio G. Obstructing colonic cancer: Failure and survival patterns over a ten-year follow-up after one-stage curative surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44(2):243-50.

Argilés G, Tabernero J, Labianca R, Hochhauser D, Salazar R, Iveson T, et al. Localised colon cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol. 2020;31(10):1291-305.

Ferlitsch M, Moss A, Hassan C, Bhandari P, Dumonceau JM, Paspatis G, et al. Colorectal polypectomy and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR): European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline. Endoscopy. 2017;49(3):270-97.

Atkin W, Dadswell E, Wooldrage K, Kralj-Hans I, Von Wagner C, Edwards R, et al. Computed tomographic colonography versus colonoscopy for investigation of patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer (SIGGAR): A multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9873):1194-202.

Liu Z, Zhang Y, Niu Y, Li K, Liu X, Chen H, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic serum biomarkers of colorectal cancer. PLoS One. 2014;9(8).

Konishi T, Shimada Y, Hsu M, Tufts L, Jimenez-Rodriguez R, Cercek A, et al. Association of preoperative and postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen and colon cancer outcome. JAMA Oncol. 2018;4(3):309-15.

Horton K, Abrams R, Fishman E. Spiral CT of colon cancer: imaging features and role in management. Radiographics. 2000;

Nerad E, Lahaye MJ, Maas M, Nelemans P, Bakers FCH, Beets GL, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of CT for Local Staging of Colon Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Nov;207(5):984- 95.

Kirke R, Rajesh A, Verma R, Bankart MJG. Rectal cancer: Incidence of pulmonary metastases on thoracic CT and correlation with T staging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2007;31(4):569-71.

Burdan F, Sudol-Szopinska I, Staroslawska E, Kolodziejczak M, Klepacz R, Mocarska A, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and endorectal ultrasound for diagnosis of rectal lesions. Eur J Med Res. 2015 Jan 14;20:4.

Tong GJ, Zhang GY, Liu J, Zheng ZZ, Chen Y, Niu PP, et al. Comparison of the eighth version of the American joint committee on cancer manual to the seventh version for colorectal cancer: A retrospective review of our data. World J Clin Oncol. 2018;9(7):148-61.

Taylor FGM, Quirke P, Heald RJ, Moran B, Blomqvist L, Swift I, et al. Preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging can identify good prognosis stage I, II, and III rectal cancer best managed by surgery alone: a prospective, multicenter, European study. Ann Surg. 2011 Apr;253(4):711-9.

Amador F, Bellas B, Clofent J, Carballal S, Cubiella J, Ferrándiz J, et al. Guía de práctica clínica de diagnóstico y prevención del cáncer colorrectal. In Asociación Española de Gastroenterología y Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria; 2018.

Castells A. [Colorectal cancer screening]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep;38 Suppl 1:64-70.

Quintero E, Castells A, Bujanda L, Cubiella J, Salas D, Lanas Á, et al. Colonoscopy versus fecal immunochemical testing in colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(8):697-706.

Pignone M, Saha S, Hoerger T, Mandelblatt J. Costeffectiveness analyses of colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(2):96-104.

Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B, Smith RA, Brooks D, Andrews KS, et al. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin. 58(3):130-60.

Carethers JM, Jung BH. Genetics and Genetic Biomarkers in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2015 Oct;149(5):1177-1190.e3.

Duran-Sanchon S, Herrera-Pariente C, Moreira L. New non-invasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer screening. Rev Española Enfermedades Dig. 2020;112.

Descargas

Publicado

2022-11-17

Cómo citar

[1]
Moreta, M.J., Llach, J. y Moreira, L. 2022. Cáncer colorrectal: factores de riesgo, diagnóstico y cribado. Medicina. 44, 3 (nov. 2022), 372–385. DOI:https://doi.org/10.56050/01205498.2183.

Número

Sección

Artículos de Revisión